Original Research

Visualisation assessment and training in a group of university football players

Joas R. Ramaja, Rekha Hansraj
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 83, No 1 | a819 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/aveh.v83i1.819 | © 2024 Joas R. Ramaja, Rekha Hansraj | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 09 November 2022 | Published: 30 March 2024

About the author(s)

Joas R. Ramaja, Department of Optometry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Limpopo, Polokwane, South Africa; and Discipline of Optometry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Rekha Hansraj, Discipline of Optometry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa


Background: Visualisation is the ability to generate a mental image of a situation before it occurs, and it is important in sports such as football. The footballer mentally imagines and rehearses situations that can occur in football; they are also able to mentally modify patterns of play to be more efficient and correct.

Aim: The study aims to assess and train visualisation in footballers. The trained visualisation is compared with the control data and the norms.

Setting: The study was conducted at the University of Limpopo Optometry Department and the offices of the University of Limpopo Soccer League.

Methods: A total of 97 footballers took part in the study. They were divided into experimental and control groups. Visualisation was initially assessed using the Getman Manipulation Tester in both groups before training the experimental group using the Ace-to-Seven method over a period of 6 weeks. The control group did not do any visualisation training. After training, the experimental group of both groups was assessed with the Getman Manipulation Tester.

Results: Pre- and post-training results in the experimental group showed improvement in visualisation, which was statistically significant (p = 0.012).

Conclusion: Visualisation in the experimental group improved after training, and the improvement was statistically significant. Literature suggests that visualisation is trainable and the training transfers to improvements on the field of play.

Contribution: Visualisation improves after training, which demonstrates that visualisation should not be assumed as a natural attribute; it should be assessed and be trained according to need.


visualisation; visual skills; Getman Manipulation Tester; Ace-to-Seven training technique; sports performance

Sustainable Development Goal

Goal 3: Good health and well-being


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