Review Article

Effect of diabetes mellitus on quantitative corneal anatomy – A systemic review

Juan A. Sanchis-Gimeno, Nabeela Hasrod, Ana M. Calvo-Maroto, Shahed Nalla, Alejandro Cerviño
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 81, No 1 | a725 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/aveh.v81i1.725 | © 2022 Juan A. Sanchis-Gimeno, Nabeela Hasrod, Ana M. Calvo-Maroto, Shahed Nalla, Alejandro Cerviño | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 23 November 2021 | Published: 28 July 2022

About the author(s)

Juan A. Sanchis-Gimeno, Giaval Research Group, Department of Anatomy and Human Embryology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Nabeela Hasrod, Department of Optometry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, South Africa
Ana M. Calvo-Maroto, Department of Ophthalmology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Universidad de Navarra, Madrid, Spain
Shahed Nalla, Giaval Research Group, Department of Anatomy and Human Embryology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; and, Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
Alejandro Cerviño, Optometry Research Group, Department of Optics, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain


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Abstract

Background: Corneal changes occur as a direct consequence of diabetes mellitus (DM). The central corneal thickness (CCT) is a useful parameter that provides information about the status of the metabolism of the cornea and can therefore help monitor the progression of DM.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of DM on CCT and its correlation with diabetes duration and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels.

Methods: The systematic review was undertaken to answer: (1) What effect does DM have on CCT values? (2) What effect does DM duration have on CCT values? (3) What effect does HbA1c levels have on CCT values? The Web of Science was used to conduct a computerised search for articles of CCT values in DM.

Results: A total of 38 articles that met the criteria for inclusion were included in this systemic review. The researchers found 27 articles that observed increased CCT values in DM patients compared with control subjects. There were six studies in which increased CCT values were related to DM duration and 12 studies in which DM duration did not alter CCT values. Also, eight studies showed that CCT values increased with glycated haemoglobin levels, and 12 studies did not observe this.

Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus patients usually present with increased CCT values although there is no unanimity about the effect of DM duration and increased HbA1c levels (poor glycaemic control) in the CCT values of DM patients.

 


Keywords

diabetes mellitus; central corneal thickness; glycated haemoglobin levels; diabetes duration; systemic review; corneal endothelial pathology; pachymetry; ocular surface; corneal hydration

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