Review Article

A review of the treatment of anisometropic amblyopia in adults using dichoptic therapy

Sunday N. Ojiabo, Alvin J. Munsamy
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 79, No 1 | a505 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/aveh.v79i1.505 | © 2020 Sunday N. Ojiabo, Alvin J. Munsamy | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 02 May 2019 | Published: 11 February 2020

About the author(s)

Sunday N. Ojiabo, Discipline of Optometry, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Alvin J. Munsamy, Discipline of Optometry, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa


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Abstract

Background: In recent years, it has been established that the suppression of the amblyopic eye by the fellow eye is the major cause of amblyopia. New behavioural therapies like dichoptic therapy attempt to reduce suppression in amblyopic adults who have passed the critical stage of visual cortex development. Anisometropic amblyopia has the highest prevalence of amblyopia, and managing this condition in adults may lead to improvement in the quality of life.

Aim: The purpose of the review is to assess the impact of this novel treatment of amblyopia, with particular focus on using dichoptic therapy for anisometropic amblyopia in adults.

Methods: A literature search was conducted on articles published in the last 20 years, and papers were sourced from databases such as Elsevier, Science Direct and PubMed using the reference manager Mendeley. (The search was performed from December 2017 to December 2018.)

Results: Evidence from located studies in adults with anisometropic or mixed amblyopia managed with new behavioural treatments including dichoptic therapy showed some significant improvement in the best-corrected distance visual acuity, stereopsis and contrast sensitivity whilst improving or restoring optimal binocular vision.

Conclusion: Adults with anisometropic and/or mixed amblyopia can benefit from dichoptic therapy with a unique approach to improve binocularity concurrently. The therapy represents a viable option for managing amblyopia in adults and can be administered as office-based or home-based treatment in a timely manner that could improve the quality of life for such patients.


Keywords

amblyopia; adult anisometropic amblyopia; binocular vision; contrast sensitivity; stereo-acuity; visual acuity; dichoptic therapy

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