Original Research

Clinical characteristics and associated factors of diabetic retinopathy in Sudanese patients

Nuha M. Muhjoub, Saif H. Alrasheed, Yazan Gammoh, Abdelaziz M. Elmadina
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 83, No 1 | a913 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/aveh.v83i1.913 | © 2024 Nuha M. Muhjoub, Saif H. Alrasheed, Yazan Gammoh, Abdelaziz M. Elmadina | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 20 December 2023 | Published: 23 May 2024

About the author(s)

Nuha M. Muhjoub, Department of Optometry Science, Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan; and, Department of Medical Photography, Faculty of Optometry and Visual Sciences, Al-Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan
Saif H. Alrasheed, Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia; and, Department of Binocular Vision, Faculty of Optometry and Visual Sciences, Al-Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan
Yazan Gammoh, Department of Optometry Science, Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan
Abdelaziz M. Elmadina, Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss and preventable blindness, particularly in middle- and high-income countries.

Aim: This study aimed to assess the characteristics and associated factors of DR in Sudanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

Setting: A cross-sectional hospital-based study included 119 patients with type 2 DM was conducted at EL-Walidain Eye Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan, from February 2021 to May 2021.

Methods: A non-mydriatic digital fundus camera was used for fundus photography, and Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Grading Scheme was used for the final classification of DR.

Results: Females comprised 53.8% of patients, mean age of 58.8 ± 8.5 years. Uncontrolled DM was found in 37.8% with a mean duration of 10.5 ± 4.8 years. Myopia was the most common refractive error found in 57.8% of the uncontrolled group, followed by emmetropia (17.8%). Whereas in the controlled group, 47.3% were hyperopic and 39.2% were myopic. Maculopathy grade M1 was found to be 37.8% in the uncontrolled group and 18.9% in the controlled group, with no significant difference (p = 0.361). Conversely, the difference in retinopathy between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.043).

Conclusion: Decreased vision and increased retinopathy were associated with an increase in patients’ age. More widespread diabetes awareness and screening programmes to improve diabetes management and control in Sudan and other developing countries.

Contribution: This study observed maculopathy grade M1 and myopia were more common in uncontrolled DM, and vision function was inversely correlated with age (p < 0.05).


Keywords

diabetes mellitus; retinopathy; maculopathy; diabetic retinopathy; Suda

Sustainable Development Goal

Goal 3: Good health and well-being

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