Review Article

Latest developments on meibomian gland dysfunction: Diagnosis, treatment and management

Solani D. Mathebula
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 81, No 1 | a713 | DOI: | © 2022 Solani D. Mathebula | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 13 October 2021 | Published: 30 May 2022

About the author(s)

Solani D. Mathebula, Department of Optometry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Limpopo, Sovenga, South Africa


Background: Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is one of the leading causes of evaporative dry eye disease and one of the most common ophthalmic conditions found in clinical practice. Meibomian gland dysfunction tends to be overlooked because its signs and symptoms do not cause blindness. Meibomian gland dysfunction is characterised by the obstruction of the meibomian gland terminal ducts resulting in tear film instability.

Aim: The purpose of this article was to provide an update on MGD’s diagnosis and treatment.

Method: A literature review was conducted using search engines such as Google Scholar, Medline and ScienceDirect databases. Keywords such as MGD diagnosis and management and treatment of MGD were used to search the databases.

Results: A total of 44 relevant papers were reviewed. These papers were then curated to include only those concerning diagnosis of meibomian gland dysfunction, treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction and management options of meibomian gland dysfunction. The references of individual papers from the curated results were checked to yield a further 13 papers.

Conclusion: Meibomian gland dysfunction is not a single entity but is multifactorial in origin; however, our understanding of the condition is evolving rapidly because of newer imaging technology. There is no gold standard treatment option for MGD, but many options are available that include medications and other procedures.



meibomian gland dysfunction; Demodex; dry eye disease; meibum; management and treatment of MGD; diagnosis of MGD


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