Original Research

The response of the accommodation system to digital and print images

Minette Devenier, Rekha Hansraj, Tuwani Rasengane
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 80, No 1 | a662 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/aveh.v80i1.662 | © 2021 Minette Devenier, Rekha Hansraj, Tuwani Rasengane | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 02 March 2021 | Published: 26 November 2021

About the author(s)

Minette Devenier, Department of Optometry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
Rekha Hansraj, Department of Optometry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Tuwani Rasengane, Department of Optometry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa


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Abstract

Background: The transition from traditional print medium to a digital medium may affect the accommodative response (AR) because of the differences in the characteristics of the targets viewed.

Aim: This study investigated how the accommodation system responded to targets displayed on a tablet computer compared to that on paper.

Setting: The study was conducted amongst students at a university in South Africa.

Methods: Using a quantitative, cross-sectional study the AR, amplitude of accommodation (AA), and accommodative facility (AF) were assessed with a target on an iPad and a paper-based one on a non-probability sample of 30 university students. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and Bland Altman plots.

Results: The median AR with a tablet was +0.25 dioptre (D) compared to +0.21 D with the paper-based target. This difference was neither statistically nor clinically significant. The median AA with a tablet computer target was 10.59 D and 9.85 D with a paper-based target. While this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.002), Bland Altman analysis revealed comparable measurements with both types of targets. Both Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test (p = 0.462) and Bland Altman analysis found comparable medians for AF obtained with a target on paper (7.67 cycles per minute [cpm]) and a target on the tablet computer (7.17 cpm) to be comparable.

Conclusion: The accuracy, strength and flexibility of accommodation were comparable for tablet computer and paper-based targets.


Keywords

accommodation; accommodation response; amplitude of accommodation; accommodation facility; iPad; paper

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