Original Research

Profile of vision function amongst learners with low vision attending inclusive schools in Kakamega County, Kenya

Doreen E. Ashioya, Peter C. Clarke-Farr
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 80, No 1 | a605 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/aveh.v80i1.605 | © 2021 Doreen E. Ashioya, Peter C. Clarke-Farr | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 10 August 2020 | Published: 29 April 2021

About the author(s)

Doreen E. Ashioya, Department of Optometry and Vision Science, School of Public Health, Biomedical Science and Technology, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega, Kenya
Peter C. Clarke-Farr, Department of Ophthalmic Sciences, Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa


Background: The quality of vision function of low vision (LV) children determines their ease and success in performing activities of daily living including academic activities undertaken whilst at school.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the vision function of LV learners attending inclusive schools in Kakamega County, Kenya.

Setting: This study was designed at public primary inclusive schools in Kakamega County, with LV placements by the County Educational Assessment and Resource Center.

Methods: This was a school-based cross-sectional study. A census survey identified 21 LV learners, who met the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of LV and had been assessed and placed in 11 public primary inclusive schools in Kakamega County. Participants underwent standard LV assessment tests. Data were entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 software and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Data were summarised and presented using tables, figures and percentages.

Results: Out of the 21 LV learners who were selected, 19 (90.5%) were assessed. The best recorded visual acuity (VA) was 0.33 decimal notation at far and 0.02 and 0.01 in the right eye and the left eye, respectively, at near. The vast majority, 94.7%, had reduction in stereopsis, whilst 42.1% had defects in colour vision, 20.0% reduced contrast sensitivity (CS) and 15.8% had visual field impairment within the central 20 degrees.

Conclusion: There is an overall decrease in vision function amongst LV learners attending inclusive schools in Kakamega County. The most affected parts of vision function are VA and stereopsis.


visual function; low vision; visual acuity; contrast sensitivity; stereopsis; colour vision; visual field


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