Original Research

Knowledge outcome of visual-simulation-based over print-based diabetic retinopathy health education amongst the Omani community residing in Al Batinah, Oman

Gopi S. Vankudre, Sheikha M.R.D. Al Saad
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 80, No 1 | a581 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/aveh.v80i1.581 | © 2021 Gopi S. Vankudre, Sheikha M.R.D. Al Saad | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 22 May 2020 | Published: 28 April 2021

About the author(s)

Gopi S. Vankudre, Department of Optometry, College of Health Sciences, University of Buraimi, Al Buraimi, Oman
Sheikha M.R.D. Al Saad, Department of Optometry, College of Health Sciences, University of Buraimi, Al Buraimi, Oman


Background: Evidence-based contextual diabetic retinopathy (DR) related health promotion tools are essential in improving patient compliance and reducing the condition-related burden within the community.

Aim: This study compares DR related knowledge impact amongst the population following the traditional print based health education over the developed visual simulations.

Setting: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted within a province in Oman over the duration of one year.

Methods: One hundred and thirty-six (50.6%) participants were provided with print-based and 133 (49.4%) with visual-simulation-based DR related health promotional intervention. A questionnaire and model responses were designed and validated to assess the knowledge of the participants about DR.

Results: The improvement in DR related knowledge scores was slightly higher in the print-based version (17.88%) compared to the visual-simulation-based (15.77%) health education. However, the Mann Whitney U test indicated a statistically insignificant (U = 8446.5, p = 0.348) difference in change in the knowledge scores between these groups following the provision of DR related health education either with the print-based or visual-simulation-based version.

Conclusion: Print-based, as well as visual-simulation-based health educational interventions are effective in improving DR related knowledge. Although there is not enough evidence to support the visual-simulation method over the print-based DR health education, observing the similar positive impact upon the DR knowledge level with the latter method, this study suggests the use of these contextual visual simulations as an alternative strategy of DR health education. There is a need to develop evaluation strategies for the health promotional tools. The evidence-based health promotional tools are recommended to be integrated within the eye health system.


health promotion; diabetes mellitus; diabetic retinopathy; primary care; optometry; ophthalmology; vision science


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