Review Article

A review of normative data for parameters of functional non-strabismic binocular vision

Charles Darko-Takyi, Vanessa R. Moodley, Samuel B. Boadi-Kusi
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 79, No 1 | a507 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/aveh.v79i1.507 | © 2020 Charles Darko-Takyi, Vanessa R. Moodley, Samuel B. Boadi-Kusi | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 07 May 2019 | Published: 21 May 2020

About the author(s)

Charles Darko-Takyi, Discipline of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; and, Department of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
Vanessa R. Moodley, Discipline of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Samuel B. Boadi-Kusi, Department of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana


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Abstract

Background: There was a need to document population-expected normative data for parameters of non-strabismic binocular vision (NSBV) as the analysis and diagnosis of binocular vision disorders required comparison of patient’s clinical signs with expected data in their specific population.

Aim: This article sought to review and map population-expected continental normative data for visual function parameters for evaluating the functional non-strabismic accommodative and vergence system, as these systems are very relevant to evaluate the comfort of visual system.

Method: Search engines – namely, Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic, Web of Science database and Ovid MEDLINE database – were used to search studies published in English across different continents using keywords such as ‘normative or expected data’ and ‘specific NSBV parameter’. Results were summarised in tables for easy comparison; data were presented based on the geographical location, year of publication, demographics of the population studied and the techniques used for measuring the parameters. A summary of observed challenges with reviewed works and recommendations for the future studies are indicated. The article is delimited to studies published between 1910 and September 2019 only.

Results: Most of the studies investigated specific parameters of either accommodation only or vergence only; few recent studies have comprehensively investigated both parameters. Most studies were conducted in North America followed by Asia and Europe, with a few in Africa. No studies were found with Oceania populations. There were discrepancies and differences in methodologies and techniques used by the studies reviewed and normative data varied among different continents and different populations within each continent.

Conclusion: As the observed differences in reviewed studies could be attributed to differences in test techniques, the future studies should consider using identical, reliable, repeatable, objective and subjective techniques with good methodological designs to clarify these results. More studies should be conducted in African and Oceania populations.


Keywords

non-strabismic binocular vision (NSBV); visual function parameters; accommodative parameters; vergence parameters

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