Review Article

Defects of colour vision: A review of congenital and acquired colour vision deficiencies

Nabeela Hasrod, Alan Rubin
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 75, No 1 | a365 | DOI: | © 2016 Nabeela Hasrod, Alan Rubin | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 11 July 2016 | Published: 22 November 2016

About the author(s)

Nabeela Hasrod, Department of Optometry, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Alan Rubin, Department of Optometry, University of Johannesburg, South Africa


Colour vision deficiencies (CVDs) can be categorised as being congenital or acquired. Some CVDs are already present at birth, as inherited conditions that are the result of changes at the photo-pigment level and are non-pathological, incurable and do not change over time. Examples are red-green defects which are inherited as an X-linked recessive trait. Acquired CVD develops secondary to ocular and systemic conditions or as a side effect of certain medications or sometimes toxic effects of chemicals, and trauma and ageing can also be important in some CVDs.


protan; deutan; tritan; trichromacy; congenital colour deficiency; acquired colour deficiency


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