Original Research

Axial length, anterior chamber depth and lens thickness: Their intercorrelations in black South Africans

Khathutshelo P. Mashige, Olalekan A. Oduntan
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 76, No 1 | a362 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/aveh.v76i1.362 | © 2017 Khathutshelo P. Mashige, Olalekan A. Oduntan | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 03 June 2016 | Published: 30 January 2017

About the author(s)

Khathutshelo P. Mashige, Discipline of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Olalekan A. Oduntan, Discipline of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Abstract

Purpose: To determine means and ranges for axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness values and their intercorrelations in an African population.

Methods: Six hundred participants (N = 600) were selected through stratified random cluster sampling from geographically contiguous areas of Durban, South Africa. All participants underwent height measurements and standard vision testing. Repeated measures of axial length, anterior chamber depth and lens thickness were taken with the Nidek US-500 Echoscan.

Results: Participants’ ages ranged from 10 to 66 years with a mean age of 28.15 ± 13.09 years (95% confidence interval, 27.09–29.19). Of all the subjects, 295 (49.17%) were females and 305 (50.83%) were males. Axial length ranged from 20.42 mm to 27.28 mm with a mean of 23.05 mm ± 0.98 mm (95% confidence interval, 22.97–23.14), anterior chamber depth ranged from 2.38 mm to 4.13 mm with a mean of 3.21 mm ± 0.37 mm (95% confidence interval, 3.18–3.24) and crystalline lens thicknesses ranged from 2.24 mm to 4.66 mm with a mean of 3.69 mm ± 0.25 mm (95% confidence interval, 3.66–3.71). All three biometric indices were significantly higher in men than in women (all p-values < 0.05). A multivariate linear regression model indicated that axial length and anterior chamber depth decreased with age, while lens thickness increased with age. All biometric indices directly correlated with the male gender and height (all p-values < 0.001). Pearson correlation coefficient tests showed that axial length was significantly positively correlated with anterior chamber (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with lens thickness (r = -0.52, p < 0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between lens thickness and anterior chamber depth values (r = -0.68, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Normative values for axial length, anterior chamber depth and lens thickness are determined for the first time in a black South African sample, aged 10–66 years. Age, gender and height were associated with biometric indices. While there was a positive correlation between axial length and anterior chamber depth, there was a negative correlation between lens thickness and both axial length and anterior chamber depth. These biometric data and their intercorrelations may provide some insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of angle-closure glaucoma in this population.


Keywords

Axial length; anterior chamber depth; lens thickness; Black South Africans

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