Review Article

Corneal cross-linking methods and outcomes: A review

Deanne Lee Nicholas, Wayne D.H. Gillian
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 75, No 1 | a359 | DOI: | © 2016 Deanne Lee Nicholas, Wayne D.H. Gillian | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 23 May 2016 | Published: 16 November 2016

About the author(s)

Deanne Lee Nicholas, Department of Optometry, University of Johannesburg, South Africa
Wayne D.H. Gillian, Department of Optometry, University of Johannesburg, South Africa


The prevalence of corneal ectasias such as keratoconus has been widely documented. Keratoconus may lead to detrimental changes in visual acuity, which can often be corrected in the early stages but requires more invasive treatment as the condition progresses. Corneal cross-linking has become a treatment method of choice in early keratoconic patients and is used to stabilise the condition and prevent further progression of the disease. The principle behind this procedure is the creation of additional bonds within the corneal structure in order to enhance its mechanical properties and thereafter halt the progression of the condition. There are disagreements within the literature as to how these procedures can be performed, and there are various alternative methods. It can be concluded that corneal cross-linking is an effective treatment method for keratoconus and has been shown to produce various beneficial effects in terms of ocular structure and function.


Cross-linking; keratoconus; Riboflavin; ultra violet light; best corrected visual acuity


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