Review Article

Down syndrome: An overview

Samuel Otabor Wajuihian
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 75, No 1 | a346 | DOI: | © 2016 Samuel Otabor Wajuihian | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 08 January 2016 | Published: 06 July 2016

About the author(s)

Samuel Otabor Wajuihian, Discipline of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa


Optometrists as primary eye care providers examine patients from diverse populations, including those with special needs such as Down syndrome. Down syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality associated with several health conditions including vision anomalies such as refractive, accommodative and vergence anomalies, as well as ocular pathology. In this article, a narrative review of Down syndrome including the background, historical perspective, aetiology and genetic mechanisms, types, epidemiology, as well as the physical and medical profile of Down syndrome is presented.

Keywords: Down syndrome review; Trisomy 21; historical perspective; etiology; types and epidemiology; features; Optometrist


Down syndrome review, Trisomy 21, historical perspective, etiology, types and epidemiology, features, Optometrist.


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