Review Article

A review of the human retina with emphasis on nerve fibre layer and macula thicknesses

Khathutshelo P. Mashige, Olalekan A. Oduntan
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 75, No 1 | a330 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/aveh.v75i1.330 | © 2016 Khathutshelo P. Mashige, Olalekan A. Oduntan | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 12 October 2015 | Published: 13 May 2016

About the author(s)

Khathutshelo P. Mashige, Discipline of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Olalekan A. Oduntan, Discipline of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa


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Abstract

The retina is the innermost neural layer of the eye, and is the site of transformation of light energy into a neural signal. Knowledge and assessment of the human retinal structural parameters are important for the appropriate diagnosis and management of various ocular diseases. For instance, potentially blinding eye diseases, such as glaucoma and age-related macula degeneration, cause structural changes in the retina. Clinical evidence with ocular coherence tomography also suggests that eyes with glaucoma lose retinal nerve fibre layer and ganglion cells axons before loss of visual function. These losses appear as a visible change in the optic nerve head and can be seen before visual field abnormalities are noticed by the patient. This review discusses certain aspects (anatomical structures, structural changes with eye diseases and assessment methods) involving the human retina, their clinical importance and factors that may influence them. The content of this article will be useful to optometrists and ophthalmologists who assess these parameters in normal patients as well as in those with eye conditions such as glaucoma.

Keywords: Retinal parameters; optic disc; nerve fibre layer thickness; macula thickness; glaucoma

 


Keywords

Retinal parameters; optic disc; nerve fibre layer thickness; macula thickness; glaucoma

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