Review Article

A review of non-strabismic accommodative and vergence anomalies in school-age children. Part 2: Accommodative anomalies

Samuel O. Wajuihian, Rekha Hansraj
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 74, No 1 | a33 | DOI: | © 2015 Samuel O. Wajuihian, Rekha Hansraj | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 18 November 2014 | Published: 28 August 2015

About the author(s)

Samuel O. Wajuihian, Discipline of Optometry, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal
Rekha Hansraj, Discipline of Optometry, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa


Comfortable reading and the performance of related near point activities involve efficient accommodative and vergence systems. However, accommodative and convergence anomalies are associated with various symptoms of asthenopia that impair efficient near point tasks. In Part 1 of this two-part article, studies on vergence anomalies were reviewed. In the current paper (Part 2), anomalies of accommodation are reviewed. The aims of the latter paper were to derive the prevalence and distribution estimates of anomalies of accommodation in school-age children and address variations in the study methods and findings. Despite variations in the study methods and findings, anomalies of accommodation are prevalent among school-age populations. Variations and limitations of previous studies are discussed and recommendations for improving future studies are suggested.


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