Review Article

A review of non-strabismic accommodative-vergence anomalies in school-age children. Part 1: Vergence anomalies

Samuel O. Wajuihian, Rekha Hansraj
African Vision and Eye Health | Vol 74, No 1 | a32 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/aveh.v74i1.32 | © 2015 Samuel O. Wajuihian, Rekha Hansraj | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 18 November 2014 | Published: 28 August 2015

About the author(s)

Samuel O. Wajuihian, Department of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Rekha Hansraj, Department of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa


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Abstract

Comfortable reading and the performance of near point activities involve efficient accommodative and vergence systems. However, accommodative and vergence anomalies are associated with various symptoms that impair efficient near point tasks. Although several studies investigated accommodative-vergence anomalies in school-age populations, their findings were diverse owing to differences in diagnostic techniques and the criteria used to define the variables. The aim of this paper is to derive prevalence and distribution estimates of vergence anomalies in school-age children and address variations in the study methods and findings. Despite variations in the study methods and findings, accommodativevergence anomalies were common in school-age populations. Variations and limitations of previous studies are discussed and recommendations for improving future studies are suggested.

Keywords

convergence insufficiency, convergence excess, fusional vergence dysfunction, heterophoria.

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